The wind power potential in the model countries has been found using data from several sources. The load hours for wind energy in each model country is based on information from Storm Weather Centre, EEA (2009) and Hoefnagels et al. (2011a). From these sources we found the “best” location for wind power in each model country, with annual load hours ranging from 1500 to 3700. The load hours are defined as the ratio between annual electricity output of a wind turbine and its rated capacity (for details on how this is estimated see Hoefnagels et al. (2011a)).
Eerens and Visser (2008) has data for wind power potential in Europe. The report has a technical potential for each country, which is then reduced by excluding all sites with wind speeds below 4 m/s and land where biodiversity issues could prevent development (all land registered in the Natura 2000 database or as nationally designated areas (CDDA)). For each country the remaining generation potential, referred to as market potential, has been categorised into different cost classes. These are labelled “Not competitive”, “Most likely competitive” and “Competitive”. The potential within the “Not competitive” are sites with average production costs between 0.173 and 0.071 €/kWh, whereas the “Most likely competitive” and “Competitive” have an average production cost ranging from 0.048 to 0.023 €/kWh. All three categories are given for 2020 and 2030. In the model 10 % of the total potential given for the two cost classes “Most likely competitive” and “Competitive” for 2030 has been used. It is assumed that there is a cost reduction for electricity generation from onshore wind which falls from 1000 €/kW in 2005 to 576 €/kW in 2030.