Demand for energy in each model country is divided into five end-user groups or sectors, denoted “household”, "electricity generation", “industry”, “services” and “transport”. The base year demand for all fuels is taken from IEA Extended World Energy Balances and is measured in million tons of oil equivalents (Mtoe). The energy demand is broken down into a detailed list of end users. For the household, service and transport sectors the IEA categories are used directly. This implies that the service sector includes both commercial and public services as this is not separated in the data set. Agriculture, forestry, fishing and other non-specified consumption has been included in the industry sector, along with non-energy use from the same categories.
The demand for fossil fuels in electricity generation is an aggregate of the demand from electricity producing plants, combined heat and power plants (CHP) and heat plants. A total of seven categories from the IEA statistics are included (Main activity producer electricity plants, Autoproducer electricity plants, Main activity producer CHP plants, Autoproducer CHP plants, Main activity producer heat plants, Autoproducer heat plants and Chemical heat for electricity production).
Base year demand for electricity is taken from the same source, and is measured in terawatt-hours (TWh). The same classifications for the sectors as outlined above have been used. Heat demand is added to the electricity demand in “household”, “industry” and “services” after converting the heat usage to electricity equivalents (see chapter 3.2 for more details).
To calibrate the demand for electricity in each period, actual country data from ENTSO-E on hourly load has been used. ENTSO-E has data for 2009 for most of Europe, except the Nordic countries, Latvia, Lithuania, Cyprus and Malta. For the Nordic countries, Latvia and Lithuania 2010 data has been used as 2009 data is not available. ENTSO-E does not have any data for Cyprus and Malta so the demand profile of Greece has been used.
To differentiate the demand patterns between the different end-user sectors a British source was used (Sustainability First 2012). The publication has demand profiles illustrating variations in electricity use by time-of-day, weekday and weekend for each month for households, commercial and industry. Commercial consists of demand from offices, communication and transport, hotel/catering, other, retail, sport and leisure and warehouses, public administration (education, government and health) and agriculture. This source gives an indication of how the demand varies between sectors and has made it possible to make some assumptions regarding demand profiles. These demand profiles are used for all model countries.