Climate change: impacts on electricity markets in Western Europe
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Golombek, Rolf, Sverre A.C. Kittelsen and Ingjerd Haddeland
This paper studies some impacts of climate change on electricity markets, focusing on three climate effects. First, demand for electricity is affected because of changes in the temperature. Second, changes in precipitation and temperature have impact on supply of hydro electric production through a shift in the inflow of water. Third, plant efficiency for thermal generation will decrease because the temperature of water used to cool equipment increases. To find the magnitude of these partial effects, as well as the overall effects, on Western European energy markets, we use the multi-market equilibrium model LIBEMOD. We find that each of the three partial effects changes the average electricity producer price by less than 2 percent, while the net effect is an increase of only 1 percent. The partial effects on total electricity supply are small, and the net effect is a decrease of 4 percent. The greatest effects are found for Nordic countries with a large market share for reservoir hydro. In these countries, annual production of electricity increases by 8 percent, reflecting more inflow of water, while net exports doubles. In addition, because of lower inflow in summer and higher in winter, the reservoir filling needed to transfer water from summer to winter is drastically reduced in the Nordic countries.
Climate change; Electricity markets; Economic modelling; Inflow; Carnot effect
Prosjekt info:Oppdragsgiver: Norges forskningsråd
Frisch prosjekt: 3153 - CELECT - Climate change impacts in the Electricity Sector