Natural gas trade flows between the model countries in the base year 2009 are based on the IEA dataset World – Natural Gas imports by origin (from the IEA Natural Gas Information online database), supplemented by country import/export figures from Extended Energy Balances as the dataset is not complete for the non-OECD countries. The IEA Natural Gas Information database has import and export data for LNG in 2009. In LIBEMOD the LNG trade is structured so that LNG is supplied from a separate node to the importing model countries. Only countries with a coastline are allowed to receive LNG. For the dataset on traded amounts to be consistent with the energy balance in each of the model countries some minor adjustments have been made to the trade flows. This ensures consistency with the data from IEA Extended Energy Balances in 2009.
The capacities for transmission of natural gas between the model countries in the base year are taken from ENTSOG. They provide a map of Europe and the neighbouring countries with transmission capacities at the country borders. It is assumed that all capacities are symmetrical. For LNG the actual traded LNG in the base year sets the initial capacity.
IEA’s World Energy Outlook has indicative costs for new pipelines to Europe in 2020. Based on this source the annualised cost of new onshore pipelines is 1.08 €/toe pr. 100 km, and the cost of offshore pipelines 2.16 €/toe pr. 100 km. IEA ETSAP (2011) has data for pipeline costs varying with capacity and steel grade. Their cost for a X70 pipeline, which is used for many of the current onshore natural gas pipelines, is in line with our onshore estimate. In the long-run model capital costs are 98 % of the annualised costs of new pipelines, whereas O&M costs are 2 %. For international transmission the loss factor is set to 2 %.
The national cost figures for transport and distribution of natural gas for EU 15 have been taken from the Household Energy Price Index, HEPI (E-Control/VaasaETT, 2012). This publication provides an overview of the different components that make up consumers’ gas bills, including distribution. For countries that are not covered by the HEPI-project, the 2010 ERGEG Status Review on the Liberalisation and Implementation of the Regulatory Framework that is carried out by the European Energy Regulators (ERGEG) has been used.