Prices and Taxes
Base year prices and taxes are mainly taken from IEA Energy Prices and Taxes (2011). The database provides a set of prices and taxes in national currency per energy unit, and prices in national currency per toe. All prices are converted to €/toe, apart from the electricity price that is expressed in €/MWh. All exchange rates used are from the IEA statistics (Energy Prices and Taxes) and all prices are given in 2009 prices. Heat is converted to electricity equivalents.
For many countries there are some missing values for 2009 in the statistics, especially for some of the non-OECD countries. As far as possible this has been solved by using other data sources, and where this was not possible by making own assumptions.
For industry the price of oil is a weighted average of the prices of light and heavy fuel oil, whilst for households and services the price of light fuel oil has been used. For the transport sector the weighted average of the prices of gasoline and diesel has been used. There are generally few end-user prices for steam coal and coking coal in the database, and very few countries have coal prices for all end-user groups. To get a full set of coal prices additional sources were used and own assumptions made. The IEA does not provide any prices for lignite so the price of lignite is set to 70 percent of the price of steam coal in each country.
The biofuel product in the model is a weighted average of bioethanol and biodiesel for each country. A set of end-user prices for biofuels in the transport sector was created by using the price of E85 (bioethanol) and the price level of unleaded 95RON (IEA 2011) for each model country. It is generally assumed that there are no excise taxes. Biomass encompasses a wide variety of different products which makes it problematic to set the end-user price. For households the price of wood pellets for each model country from the Pellets@tlas projet has been used.
For the industry and the electricity producing sectors the picture is even more complex as there will be considerable differences in the type of biomass used by industry customers and power plants. In many cases local residues or industrial waste products will have a low cost (IRENA 2012). Therefore the price of biomass is based on an assessment of each country’s supply curve for biomass, transport and distribution costs.
There is also a set of producer prices for all energy sources in the base year. This can be seen as the price in each country’s production node. For gas producing countries this price has been based on BP (2012). However, for the large gas producing countries data from Rystad Energy has been used. IEA Energy Prices and Taxes provides import prices, or beach prices, for natural gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) for a selection of OECD countries. In the model the beach price is a weighted average of the natural gas price and the LNG price, using quantities from the IEA Extended Energy Balances. All data is for the base year 2009. For the Baltic States the average gas sales price from Gazprom to CIS and the Baltic States for 2009 has been used. Gazprom also has a price to countries “beyond FSU”, which has been used for some of the eastern European countries when Energy Prices and Taxes does not have import prices.
For coking coal, steam coal, oil, natural gas and LNG the price for “EU member states” from the IEA Energy Prices and Taxes (2010/01) in 2009 has been used. For oil the price of “Brent” from the same publication has been used, whereas OECD FAO Agricultural Outlook 2011-2020 has been used for world prices for bioethanol and biodiesel. For biomass the producer price in each country is based on Biomass Futures (2012).