Foreign-born Migration to and from Norway
Based on longitudinal data, this paper examines trends in immigration and patterns of repeat and return migration among the foreign-born population of Norway. The data cover all immigrant admissions between 1967 and 2003. We find that more than 50 percent of those who were admitted during the period had outmigrated by 2004. Most outmigration events occur within a few years of arrival. Outmigration patterns vary by country of origin and class of admission; immigrants from the OECD area have the highest outmigration rates and immigrants admitted on the basis of family reunification have the lowest propensities to outmigrate. At least fourteen percent of those who outmigrated moved onward to a third country instead of returning to their home country. And fifteen percent of all outmigrants later reimmigrated to Norway during the sample period. Empirical analyses of annual immigration, outmigration, third-country migration, and reimmigration flows show that migration flows are affected by economic conditions in Norway and economic and political conditions in the source country.
Bratsberg, Bernt, Oddbjørn Raaum, and Kjetil Sørlie